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Race and Health Profiles in the United States: An Examination of the Social Gradient Through the 2009 CHIS Adult Survey (Public Health)

Publication Topics

California Health Interview Survey; 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2009); Racial and Ethnic Groups; Low-Income

Publication Type

CHIS Journal Article

Publication Date


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​Authors predicted that higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES), measured by educational attainment and family income, would be associated with positive health behaviors. The study also examined the differential effects of the social gradient in health among different racial/ethnic groups (i.e., non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Asian, Hispanics, and American Indians). Data were from the adult 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine trends found between SES and health conditions and health behaviors. Polynomial trends were examined for all linear and logistic models to test for the possible effects (linear, quadratic, and cubic) of the social gradient on health behaviors and outcomes stratified by race/ethnicity.

Findings indicated that, in general, whites had more favorable health profiles in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups with the exception of Asians who were likely to be as healthy as or healthier than whites. Also, the social gradient was differentially associated with health outcomes across race/ethnicity groups. While the social gradient was most consistently observed for whites, education did not have the same protective effect on health among Blacks and American Indians. Also, compared to other minority groups, Hispanics and Asians were more likely to display curvilinear trends of the social gradient: an initial increase from low SES to mid-level SES was associated with worse health outcomes and behaviors; however, continued increase from mid-SES to high SES saw returns to healthy outcomes and behaviors.



Article 1

Journal Article: Race and Health Profiles in the United States: An Examination of the Social Gradient Through the 2009 CHIS Adult Survey

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Press Release

Related Link 1

California Health Interview Survey (CHIS)

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Version: 4.0
Created at 1/7/2015 11:34 AM by i:0#.f|uclachissqlmembershipprovider|celeste
Last modified at 1/7/2015 11:40 AM by i:0#.f|uclachissqlmembershipprovider|celeste