print share
Version HistoryVersion History


Inequity in California’s Smokefree Workplace Laws: A Legal Epidemiological Analysis of Loophole Closures (American Journal of Preventive Medicine)

Publication Topics

Publication Type

CHIS Journal Article

Publication Date


Author 1

<a onclick="OpenPopUpPage('http:\u002f\\u002f_layouts\u002flistform.aspx?PageType=4\u0026ListId={7AAD61FA-4BCB-48C0-B0B7-87AFDC3673EF}\u0026ID=756\u0026RootFolder=*', RefreshPage); return false;" href=";ListId={7AAD61FA-4BCB-48C0-B0B7-87AFDC3673EF}&amp;ID=756&amp;RootFolder=*"> F. Lurmann</a>

Author 2

Author 3

Author 4

Author 5

Author 6

Author 7

Author 8

Author 9

Author 10

Author 11

Author 12

Author 13

Author 14


Summary: California’s landmark 1994 Smokefree Workplace Act contained numerous exemptions, or loopholes, believed to contribute to inequities in smoke-free air protections among low-income communities and communities of color (e.g., permitting smoking in warehouses, hotel common areas). Cities/counties were not prevented from adopting stronger laws. The current study coded municipal laws and state law changes (in 2015–2016) for loophole closures and determined their effects in reducing inequities in smoke-free workplace protections.

Public health attorneys reviewed current laws for 536 of California’s 539 cities and counties from January 2017 to May 2018 and coded for 19 loophole closures identified from legislative actions (inter-rater reliability, 87%). The local policy data were linked with population demographics from intercensal estimates (2012–2016) and adult smoking prevalence (2014). Analyses were cross-sectional, conducted in February–June 2019.

Findings: Between 1994 and 2018, jurisdictions closed 6.09 loopholes on average. Urban jurisdictions closed more loopholes than rural jurisdictions, and loophole closure scores correlated positively with population size, median household income, and percentage non-Hispanic white residents. Population demographics and loophole closure score explained 43% of the variance in jurisdictions’ adult smoking prevalence. State law changes in 2015–2016 increased loophole closure scores and decreased jurisdiction variation; closed more loopholes in rural versus urban jurisdictions; and in less populated, less affluent jurisdictions, with greater racial/ethnic diversity, and higher smoking prevalence.

Although jurisdictions made important progress in closing loopholes in smoke-free air law, state law changes achieved greater reductions in inequities in policy coverage.

This study uses data from the 2014 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS).


Article 1

Journal Article: Inequity in California’s Smokefree Workplace Laws: A Legal Epidemiological Analysis of Loophole Closures

Article 2

Article 3

Article 4

Article 5

Article 6

Article 7

Article 8

Article 9

Article 10

Article 11

Article 12

Press Release

Related Link 1

California Health Interview Survey (CHIS)

Related Link 2

Related Link 3

Related Link 4

Related Link 5

Related Link 6

Related Link 7

Related Link 8

Related Link 9

Related Link 10

Related Link 11

Related Link 12

Related Link 13

Related Link 14

Related Link 15

Related Link 16

Version: 2.0
Created at 6/16/2021 3:32 PM by i:0#.f|uclachissqlmembershipprovider|celeste
Last modified at 6/18/2021 3:40 AM by i:0#.f|uclachissqlmembershipprovider|celeste